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基于适应性周期的韧性城市分类评价——以我国海绵城市与气候适应型城市试点为例

A typology analysis on resilient cities based on adaptive cycle——taking cases of Chinese sponge cities and climate resilient cites pilot projects

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【作者】 郑艳翟建青武占云李莹史巍娜

【Author】 ZHENG Yan;ZHAI Jian-qing;WU Zhan-yun;LI Ying;SHI Wei-na;Institute of Urban & Environmental Studies,Chinese Academy of Social Sciences;National Climate Centre;Academy of Macroeconomic Research,National Development and Reform Commission;

【机构】 中国社会科学院城市发展与环境研究所国家气候中心国家发改委宏观研究院

【摘要】 建设韧性城市已成为城市规划与风险治理领域的热点议题。韧性城市注重城市系统应对各种内外部风险冲击的能力,我国正在推进的海绵城市、气候适应型城市的试点是建设韧性城市的具体途径。其中,海绵城市旨在减小暴雨和水资源相关风险,气候适应型城市注重应对气候变化引发的多种灾害风险。目前国内外对于韧性城市的理论基础及其评价方法尚处于研究和探索阶段,针对我国城市地域分布广泛、灾害类型复杂多样、发展阶段差异大等特点,亟需在试点工作中加强理论指导和分类评价研究。本文选择全国282个地级及以上城市,以暴雨作为致灾危险性因子,构建了包括城市发展能力、绿色基础设施和灰色基础设施能力的城市韧性指数,依据韧性理论中的适应性周期假说,将样本城市区分为韧性城市、低风险城市、脆弱型城市和高风险城市四类,应对暴雨的系统韧性分别为高、中、低水平。结果表明,四类城市在海绵城市、气候适应型城市的试点样本中所占比重并不均衡。其中,海绵城市试点中的韧性城市和低风险城市类别共占33%,这些"锦上添花"型的试点城市应总结经验并深入发掘潜在问题;而气候适应型城市试点中的脆弱型城市、高风险城市两类占到其试点总数的92%,需要借助试点政策"雪中送炭"以减小风险、提升韧性。针对试点中存在的韧性城市数量少、高风险城市甄别不足、低风险城市入选比例过高、脆弱性城市数量众多且分化性大等问题,本文建议在试点工作中积极推进气候适应型城市与海绵城市的协同建设,加强试点城市的分类评价及指标考核,对不同类型的试点城市采取差异化的政策支持,加强韧性城市的公众参与等。

【Abstract】 Building resilient cities has become an emerging focus in urban planning and risk governance. Resilient cities aim to improve adaptive capacity to cope with multiple risks and shocks from internal and external environment. Sponge City and ClimateResilient City pilot projects have been launched to build resilient cities in China. Sponge City pilot project designs to reduce rainstorm impacts and water resources related risk; meanwhile,Climate-Resilient City pilot project aims to deal with diverse disaster risks driven by climate change. The reseach and practice on resilience theory and typology are still on the way. Considering differentiated characteristics of geographic distribution,disaster tpyes,and socio-economic development in Chinese cities,these pilot cities require theoretical and practical support to conduct projects by classification of urban resilience. Take 282 Chinese cities at prefecture-level and above as example,this article coordinates Heavy Rain Hazard and Urban Resilience Index for resilience classification,the latter index comprises of urban development,green infrastructure,grey infrastructure. On the basis of resilience theory and Adaptive Cycle hypothesis,this article categories the sample cities with four typical stages and three levels of urban disaster resilience,including Resilient City( high sytem resilience),Low Risk City( middle system resilience),Vulnerable City and High Risk City( low system resilience). The results show a distribution imbalance of these four types in the two pilot projects. For example,resilient cities and low risk cities accounted for 33% in the total cases of pilot sponge cities,which means both experience-learning and problem-finding are required for these cities of ‘adding flowers to embroidery’. On the contrary,92% of the climate-resilient pilot cities attributed to vulnerable cities and high risk cities,which means the climate-resilient pilot project can ‘help lame dogs over a stile’with policy support on risk reduction and resilience building. This article addresses several challenges for these two pilot projects to get fruitful demonstration,such as how to get best practice and lessons from a handful of resilient cities and very limited high risk cities,how to support and differentiate the great number of low risk cities and vulnerable cities. In the end,this article proposes to strengthen collaborative governance between in-charge agencies of sponge cities and climate-resilient cities,offer scientific support to pilot cities by typology-based appraisal and monitoring,develop discrepancy policies for different types of cities,improve the public participation in community level,and so on.

【基金】 国家自然科学基金“适应气候变化治理机制:中国东西部地区案例比较研究”(批准号:71203231)
  • 【分类号】F299.2
  • 【下载频次】596
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