A typology analysis on resilient cities based on adaptive cycle——taking cases of Chinese sponge cities and climate resilient cites pilot projects
【Abstract】 Building resilient cities has become an emerging focus in urban planning and risk governance. Resilient cities aim to improve adaptive capacity to cope with multiple risks and shocks from internal and external environment. Sponge City and ClimateResilient City pilot projects have been launched to build resilient cities in China. Sponge City pilot project designs to reduce rainstorm impacts and water resources related risk; meanwhile,Climate-Resilient City pilot project aims to deal with diverse disaster risks driven by climate change. The reseach and practice on resilience theory and typology are still on the way. Considering differentiated characteristics of geographic distribution,disaster tpyes,and socio-economic development in Chinese cities,these pilot cities require theoretical and practical support to conduct projects by classification of urban resilience. Take 282 Chinese cities at prefecture-level and above as example,this article coordinates Heavy Rain Hazard and Urban Resilience Index for resilience classification,the latter index comprises of urban development,green infrastructure,grey infrastructure. On the basis of resilience theory and Adaptive Cycle hypothesis,this article categories the sample cities with four typical stages and three levels of urban disaster resilience,including Resilient City( high sytem resilience),Low Risk City( middle system resilience),Vulnerable City and High Risk City( low system resilience). The results show a distribution imbalance of these four types in the two pilot projects. For example,resilient cities and low risk cities accounted for 33% in the total cases of pilot sponge cities,which means both experience-learning and problem-finding are required for these cities of ‘adding flowers to embroidery’. On the contrary,92% of the climate-resilient pilot cities attributed to vulnerable cities and high risk cities,which means the climate-resilient pilot project can ‘help lame dogs over a stile’with policy support on risk reduction and resilience building. This article addresses several challenges for these two pilot projects to get fruitful demonstration,such as how to get best practice and lessons from a handful of resilient cities and very limited high risk cities,how to support and differentiate the great number of low risk cities and vulnerable cities. In the end,this article proposes to strengthen collaborative governance between in-charge agencies of sponge cities and climate-resilient cities,offer scientific support to pilot cities by typology-based appraisal and monitoring,develop discrepancy policies for different types of cities,improve the public participation in community level,and so on.
【Key words】 resilient cities； adaptive cycle； sponge city； climate resilient city； system resilience； typology；